General Guidelines







In order to speed up the processing of your manuscript, please prepare your files according to the following protocol:





Before submitting your manuscript, please check your text for the following points: 

  • Make sure that your manuscript is written using any of the following formats: PDF, Word, Text, XPS, HTML, Open XML or any other compatible format.  
  • Before uploading, please remove any former editing marks introduced by “Track Changes” from the manuscript. You can do this quickly by using the options available under the “Track Changes” menu of MS Word.
  • Please supply the texts and the figures or images in separate files. Do not imbed the figures in the Word document as this can make files too large to upload/download, and can cause problems when editing.
  • The figure files should include any labels or markers that are part of the figure itself, but not the figure number, title, legend, or notes (they will be typeset separately). The figure number, title, legend, and notes should be provided with the text of the manuscript.

Information for figures:

Table figures: 

  • Can be sent using LaTex, Excel, Word, etc.

Artwork figures:

  • Each figure must be a separate file.
  • Figure files should be preferably in TIFF or EPS format. EPS files saved by a commercial-quality graphic program (such as Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Illustrator, or Kaleidagraph) are generally the most reliable.
  • If you only need the text of the figures to be translated and/or edited and you will recompose them afterwards, you can send them to us also in any image format such as JPEG, PNG, etc.
  • Figures that are intended to be printed in color should be prepared as CMYK (i.e., four-color) files, not RGB files. RGB files cannot be used for printing and must be converted to CMYK, which can result in undesirable color shifts.
  • Make sure that figures intended for black-and-white reproduction do not contain any color objects. Although color figures usually print acceptably on black-and-white laser printers, unexpected color images will disrupt the printing process, resulting in publication delays. If figures contain any color lines or color objects, the author may be charged for color by the Journal, even if color was not requested.

Math symbols and figures:  

  • Authors of math-intensive articles are strongly urged to format their articles in LaTeX. This is particularly important if the articles contain numerous or complex equations and symbols.

Special characters

  • In any version of Word or WordPerfect, for Macintosh or Windows, the keyboard shortcuts for characters such as em-dashes, curly quotes, accented letters, and so on, are always acceptable.
  • For individual math symbols, Greek letters, and other special characters for which there is no keyboard shortcut, each version of Word or WordPerfect has an "Insert > Symbol" or "Insert > Character" command, which produces a chart of symbols from which you can choose.
  • In WordPerfect, if you choose "Insert > Symbol" or "Insert > Character", avoid symbols from the non-Western character sets (Cyrillic, Hebrew, Japanese, etc.).
  • In Word, if you choose "Insert > Symbol", choose characters only from the "normal text" font or the Symbol font. In Word for Windows, choose characters only from the Basic Latin and Latin-1 subsets in "normal text" or the Symbol font. In any word processor, characters produced with non-Latin fonts other than Symbol (e.g., Mathematical Pi, Dingbats, etc.) may not convert properly.
  • If you must insert characters in a non-Latin font other than Symbol, please circle them on your printed manuscript. Note that some characters, especially when seen on a computer screen, are easily confused: e.g., a German "double-ess" (ß) and a lowercase beta ( b ); or an apostrophe (’) and a prime symbol ( ′ ). Be sure to insert the character you want (and check your proofs carefully).


When you submit your work, please ensure that you upload all the relevant files.


General guidelines for manuscripts intended for journals or other printed publications:

Styles and conventions among journals vary significantly, so please let us know the name of your target publications for compliance with their general guidelines.



 If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact us, we will be pleased to help you!